Debian (and therefore probably Ubuntu?) don't have lpr installed by default, which means thinlocal printing will fail. The following unhelpful messages are printed to tlclient.log:
2014-02-28T13:08:38: Finished receiving printer job
2014-02-28T13:08:38: Printing job with title "(stdin)" and type "application/pdf" (1 copies).
2014-02-28T13:08:38: Converted printer job from PDF to PS: /tmp/lpdJ2hadf.ps
2014-02-28T13:08:38: Printing received file: /tmp/lpdJ2hadf.ps
2014-02-28T13:08:38: Failed to start command lpr
2014-02-28T13:08:38: Print error: Error when running 'lpr' command to print file
Actually, Debian's lpr is stupid and broken. It won't print to the default printer if no destination is specified; it attempts to print to the print queue "lp" instead. So even installing lpr won't help in this case.
Actually, that's just the original lpr (which is what you get if you install the "lpr" package). The lpr that all other distros use is the one from CUPS, and that lives in cups-bsd on Debian. Installing that gets sane behaviour.